This is the second of two articles in which we examine how astronomers measure distances on an astronomical scale and explore some of their most important applications to cosmology.
In the first article, we introduced and described some methods used by astronomers to measure the distance of astronomical objects in our universe. By using a historical perspective in this second article, we proceed to study some of these methods in more depth. We also introduce new mensuration methods and conclude with a mixture of theoretical and practical student exercises. So let our exploration commence with some historical measurements of the closest stars.
An understanding of basic trigonometry is required, and this article builds on the theory of the previous article with a more technical treatment of Hubble's Law and its application to the Doppler Effect.